20.5. Localizing FreeBSD to Specific Languages

20.5.1. Russian Language (KOI8-R Encoding)

Originally contributed by Andrey Chernov.

For more information about KOI8-R encoding, see the KOI8-R References (Russian Net Character Set). Locale Setup

Put the following lines into your ~/.login_conf file:

me:My Account:\

See earlier in this chapter for examples of setting up the locale. Console Setup

  • Add the following line to your /etc/rc.conf file:

  • Also, use following settings in /etc/rc.conf:

  • For each ttyv* entry in /etc/ttys, use cons25r as the terminal type.

See earlier in this chapter for examples of setting up the console. Printer Setup

Since most printers with Russian characters come with hardware code page CP866, a special output filter is needed to convert from KOI8-R to CP866. Such a filter is installed by default as /usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt. A Russian printer /etc/printcap entry should look like:

lp|Russian local line printer:\

See printcap(5) for a detailed description. MS-DOS(R) FS and Russian Filenames

The following example fstab(5) entry enables support for Russian filenames in mounted MS-DOS(R) filesystems:

/dev/ad0s2      /dos/c  msdos   rw,-Wkoi2dos,-Lru_RU.KOI8-R 0 0

The option -L selects the locale name used, and -W sets the character conversion table. To use the -W option, be sure to mount /usr before the MS-DOS(R) partition because the conversion tables are located in /usr/libdata/msdosfs. For more information, see the mount_msdos(8) manual page. X11 Setup

  1. Do non-X locale setup first as described.

  2. If you use Xorg, install x11-fonts/xorg-fonts-cyrillic package.

    Check the "Files" section in your /etc/X11/xorg.conf file. The following lines must be added before any other FontPath entries:

    FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/misc"
    FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/75dpi"
    FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/100dpi"

    If you use a high resolution video mode, swap the 75 dpi and 100 dpi lines.

  3. To activate a Russian keyboard, add the following to the "Keyboard" section of your xorg.conf file.

    Option "XkbLayout"   "us,ru"
    Option "XkbOptions"  "grp:toggle"

    Also make sure that XkbDisable is turned off (commented out) there.

    For grp:caps_toggle the RUS/LAT switch will be CapsLock. The old CapsLock function is still available via Shift+CapsLock (in LAT mode only). For grp:toggle the RUS/LAT switch will be Right Alt. grp:caps_toggle does not work in Xorg for unknown reason.

    If you have "Windows(R)" keys on your keyboard, and notice that some non-alphabetical keys are mapped incorrectly in RUS mode, add the following line in your xorg.conf file.

    Option "XkbVariant" ",winkeys"


    The Russian XKB keyboard may not work with non-localized applications.


Minimally localized applications should call a XtSetLanguageProc (NULL, NULL, NULL); function early in the program.

See KOI8-R for X Window for more instructions on localizing X11 applications.

20.5.2. Traditional Chinese Localization for Taiwan

The FreeBSD-Taiwan Project has an Chinese HOWTO for FreeBSD at http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/ using many Chinese ports. Current editor for the FreeBSD Chinese HOWTO is Shen Chuan-Hsing .

Chuan-Hsing Shen has created the Chinese FreeBSD Collection (CFC) using FreeBSD-Taiwan's zh-L10N-tut. The packages and the script files are available at ftp://freebsd.csie.nctu.edu.tw/pub/taiwan/CFC/.

20.5.3. German Language Localization (for All ISO 8859-1 Languages)

Slaven Rezic wrote a tutorial how to use umlauts on a FreeBSD machine. The tutorial is written in German and available at http://www.de.FreeBSD.org/de/umlaute/.

20.5.4. Japanese and Korean Language Localization

For Japanese, refer to http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/, and for Korean, refer to http://www.kr.FreeBSD.org/.

20.5.5. Non-English FreeBSD Documentation

Some FreeBSD contributors have translated parts of FreeBSD to other languages. They are available through links on the main site or in /usr/share/doc.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.